This primer reflects more than two years of thoughtful work and collaboration among dozens of authors, all experts in different areas of carbon dioxide removal. The effort spanned several workshops and an extensive period of writing, reading, and constructive feedback.

The project was made possible through the generous support of the following organizations:

To maximize the reach and dissemination of this educational resource, we are initially releasing this primer as a digital, open source book that is free to all. A physical version of the primer is under production. You can sign up here to be notified as soon as it is available for purchase (likely spring or summer 2021).


All book content, including all text and figures, is made available under a Creative Commons CC-BY 4.0 license, which allows others to distribute, adapt, and build upon the work, even commercially, so long as they cite and credit the original version.

To acknowledge or cite this work, please cite specific chapters (or sections within chapters), to acknowledge the contributions of specific chapter authors. For example:

  • A Bergman & A Rinberg (2021) "The Case for Carbon Dioxide Removal: From Science to Justice" CDR Primer, edited by J Wilcox, B Kolosz, J Freeman

  • S Hovorka & P Kelemen (2021) “The Building Blocks of CDR Systems: Geological Sequestration” CDR Primer, edited by J Wilcox, B Kolosz, J Freeman

  • N McQueen, B Kolosz, & C McCormick (2021) “Analysis and Quantification of Negative Emissions” CDR Primer, edited by J Wilcox, B Kolosz, J Freeman

If necessary, you may also cite the primer as a whole, using the names of the editors:

  • J Wilcox, B Kolosz, & J Freeman (2021) CDR Primer

If you identify any typos or other errors in the primer, please email kolosz@seas.upenn.edu to provide feedback.