45Q tax credit (45Q)

Provides a progressive production tax credit for CCS (including DACCS, BECCS, and CCUS) reaching a maximum value of $50 USD per ton CO2 storage and $35 per ton for beneficial reuse in 2026 and adjusted for inflation thereafter. Under current provisions, qualified facilities can claim the credit for up to 12 years after being in service.


A unit operation used in the chemical industry to separate gases. In an absorber, the gas comes in contact with a specific solvent that will selectively scrub (remove) the target contaminant from the gas stream. For absorbers used in carbon dioxide (CO2) avoidance or removal, the target contaminant is CO2. Absorbers themselves can be configured in many ways, including spray columns, packed columns, or bubble columns. (See also: solvent)


When atoms, molecules, or ions enter the liquid or solid phase of a sorbent. (See also: solvent)


The adhesion of atoms, molecules, or ions to a surface, creating a thin film of the adsorbate (the chemical species that is doing the adhering) on the surface of the adsorbent (the species that is being adhered to).

Advanced Research Projects Agency-Energy (ARPA-E)

United States federal agency which advances high-potential, high-impact energy technologies that are not yet ready for private sector investment. ARPA-E awardees are unique in that they are developing novel ways to generate, store, and use energy.

aerobic ecosystem

An aerobic environment is one characterized by the presence of free oxygen (O2), in contrast to an anaerobic environment, which is one devoid of O2. (Elgamal, 2016).


Evaluates the degree to which an intervention – for example, a CDR project –  causes a climate benefit above and beyond what would have happened in a no-intervention baseline scenario. By definition, this counterfactual baseline scenario cannot be directly observed (because it did not happen), so can only be estimated or inferred based on contextual information. Additionality can be assessed at the level of individual projects or protocols that define categories of projects. In policy regimes such as cap-and-trade programs, where emissions are permitted in exchange for reduction or storage elsewhere, failures of additionality result in increased emissions.


The creation of a new forest in an area that was not previously forested. (IPCC SR 1.5 Glossary).

agricultural byproduct/agricultural residues

Low-value biomass resources that are derived from the cultivation of primary cash crops and do not typically have widespread commercial applications. Examples include rice straw, wheat straw, rice husks, and corn stover, which in many places are left on the fields after harvests, used for fodder and landfill material, or burnt. (See also: stover). (Adhikari et al., 2018).

agriculture, forestry and other land use (AFOLU)

A term used in the 2006 Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) guidelines, which describes the anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions from two distinct sectors: Agriculture and LULUCF (Land Use, Land Use Change and Forestry).


The intentional integration of trees and shrubs into crop and animal farming systems to create environmental, economic, and social benefits. Agroforestry has been practiced in the United States and around the world for centuries. (USDA, 2019).

air contactor (contactor)

A structural component of direct air capture systems that provides a means for the capture media, e.g. basic solvents or sorbents, to make contact with and chemically bind carbon dioxide from ambient air.

air separation unit

Technology used to isolate and produce nitrogen or oxygen, and often co-produce argon


The proportion of the incident light or radiation that is reflected at the Earth's surface.


The capacity of a solution to resist acidification. Differs from basicity, which is an absolute measurement on the pH scale. For carbon mineralization, alkalinity (or alkaline potential) is measured by the presence of alkaline divalent cations (e.g. calcium and magnesium ions). 

allocation method

A collection of methods used in life cycle analysis that partition the input and/or output flows of a process to the product system that is under study. Allocation methods are used when a system is multifunctional (or produces more than one product). These methods provide a framework to divide the impacts of a product system across multiple co-products. (See also: co-product)

ambient weathering

Weathering that occurs naturally under normal environmental conditions. 

anaerobic ecosystem

An ecosystem or environment characterized by its lack of free oxygen (O2) but, which may contain atomic oxygen bound in compounds such as nitrate (NO3), nitrite (NO2), and sulfites (SO3). (Antonietti, 1999)

annualized cost

The cost paid annually on a capital cost loan, determined by the loan amount, loan period, and interest rate. 

anthropogenic emissions (anthropogenic carbon emissions)

Human activities, such as burning fossil fuel, deforestation, and livestock, that result in an overall increase in carbon dioxide emissions. 

artificial upwelling

Pumping nutrient-rich water to the surface to increase phytoplankton activity. This increases the uptake of carbon dioxide into the ocean. 


Fibrous, crystalline, durable material that can be toxic and highly dangerous to the human body. Asbestos is the common name for asbestiform minerals.

avoided emissions

Permanently storing what would have been a CO2 emission in order to avoid an increase in atmospheric CO2. Note that this is distinct from CDR because the source of CO2 is an existing emission rather than the atmosphere. The climate benefit of such an intervention depends on the counterfactual scenario — what would have happened without our action? — which can only be estimated, not observed. If a project claims to avoid emissions that weren’t going to happen anyway, and other emissions are allowed to continue in exchange, then an avoided emission project can do more damage to the climate than doing nothing at all.

bioenergy with carbon capture and storage (or sequestration) (BECCS)

The process of extracting bioenergy from biomass and capturing and storing the emitted carbon, thereby removing it from the atmosphere.


A stable solid rich in carbon that is made from organic waste material or biomass that is partially combusted in the presence of limited oxygen. The qualities that make up biochar vary depending upon the material from which it is made (feedstocks, i.e., timber slash, corn stalks, manure, etc.) and the temperature at which combustion occurs. (USDA, 2020)

biological carbon stock (biological stock)

Carbon that is fixed and mediated through biological processes, such as photosynthesis or respiration. For example, these stocks would include soil organic carbon and carbon stored in biomass. 


Pyrolysis oil, sometimes known as bio-crude or bio-oil, is a synthetic fuel under investigation as a substitute for petroleum. It is obtained by heating dried biomass without oxygen in a reactor at a temperature of about 500° C with subsequent cooling. (David et al., 2010)


Plant (or animal) material used as fuel. Examples include wood, agricultural residues such as stover, or crops grown for the purpose of bioenergy production, such as switchgrass.

biomass storage (or sequestration)

The conversion of biomass into derived materials with more durable storage than the source biomass, including the use of pyrolysis to convert biomass into bio-oil (fast pyrolysis) or biochar (slow pyrolysis).

blue hydrogen

Hydrogen produced from natural gas through steam methane reforming coupled to carbon capture and storage.

brecciated rock

Rock composed of broken fragments of minerals or rock cemented together by a fine-grained matrix, which can be similar to or different from the composition of the fragments.

British thermal units (BTU)

A measure of the energy content in fuel, used in the power, steam generation, heating, and air conditioning industries. 1 mmBTU refers to one million British thermal units.

burial/carbon burial

Burial in sediments removes organic carbon from the short-term biosphere-atmosphere carbon cycle, and therefore prevents greenhouse gas production in natural systems.


A reaction vessel in which calcination occurs. Calcination is a process by which ore is heated to  temperatures high enough to decompose, but not melt, the ore. For example, calcium carbonate is calcined near 900º C to produce carbon dioxide and calcium oxide. 

capacity factor

The ratio of the actual operating capacity of a facility divided by the maximum operating capacity of the facility over a given period. for example, if a facility operates 24 hours a day, 7 days a week for 47 weeks out of a year, the capacity factor is (24x7x47)/(24x7x52.14) = 90 percent.


A market-based policy which establishes a ‘cap’ on the total allowable (permitted) emissions for entities covered under the policy. The policy allows covered entities to either reduce emissions or purchase permits (through auctions or from other covered entities) to achieve compliance. The cap declines over time to reduce emissions from covered entities. 

capillary trapping (residual gas trapping)

A secondary carbon dioxide trapping mechanism in subsurface reservoirs that renders the carbon dioxide gas immobile in the pore space via capillary forces. These forces are governed by fluid and interfacial physics and act at the spatial scale of rock pores. (See also: pore space)

capital expenditures

Monetary start-up costs used to implement an asset.

capital recovery factor

The ratio of a constant annuity to the present value of receiving that annuity for a given length of time.


An impermeable rock type overlying a porous rock type that acts as a reservoir. The pores of the porous rock are commonly filled with brine or hydrocarbons, and the caprock prevents fluids and gas from rising to the surface.

captive carbon dioxide (captive CO2)

CO2 that has been captured as a byproduct of industrial production for the purpose of internal reuse.

carbon accounting

The process of quantifying carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gas emissions throughout a system or product's lifecycle.

carbon capture and storage (CCS)

The process of capturing carbon dioxide formed during power generation and industrial processes and storing it so that it is not emitted into the atmosphere. Carbon capture and storage technologies have significant potential to reduce carbon dioxide emissions in energy systems.

carbon capture and utilization (CCU)

The process of capturing carbon dioxide to be recycled for further usage.

carbon capture, utilization and storage (CCUS)

A term encompassing methods and technologies to remove carbon dioxide from flue gas and from the atmosphere, followed by recycling the carbon dioxide for utilization and determining safe and permanent storage options.

carbon dioxide removal (CDR)

Activities that remove CO2 from the atmosphere and durably store it in geological, terrestrial, or ocean reservoirs, or in products. CDR includes enhancement of biological or geochemical sinks and direct air capture (DAC) and storage, but excludes natural CO2 uptake not directly caused by human intervention.

CDR approach

Refers to methods, which may not necessarily be complete CDR systems, that can achieve carbon dioxide removal. For example, DAC in the absence of permanent storage is a CDR approach, but is not on its own a CDR system.

carbon cycle

The carbon cycle concerns the residence time and flux of carbon – in various chemical states – between the ocean, land, terrestrial biosphere, atmosphere, and geological formations in the Earth.

carbon dioxide equivalent (CO2eq)

Describes the impact of a given GHG (CO2, CO, CH4, N2O, etc.) by converting its mass to the equivalent mass of CO2 that would have the same global warming effect. The mass of a GHG is converted to the mass of CO2eq based on the GHG molecule’s potential to affect global warming, or its global warming potential (GWP). The GWP takes into account both the radiative forcing effect of the GHG and the gas’ lifetime in the atmosphere, and is dependent on the time horizon, which is most commonly 20 years (GWP20) or 100 years (GWP100). These values are different because the GWP is time-integrated and the GWP of CO2 is always 1, regardless of the time horizon. (See Chapter 4, Supplement 4.1.)

carbon flux

The amount of carbon exchanged between the land, ocean, living things (i.e. plants, animals, fungi, bacteria, etc.), and the atmosphere. 

carbon intensity

The amount of carbon or carbon equivalent emissions – typically measured over the entire lifecycle – related to the unit production of a service or good.

carbon offsets

Programs or policy regimes in which companies or individuals pay for activities that result in emissions reductions or CDR. In voluntary offset programs, individuals or companies pay project developers (or similar) directly to implement some activity that results in emissions reductions or CDR. In compliance offset programs, such as cap-and-trade programs, companies that are responsible for large amounts of emissions are allowed to continue to emit above a certain cap in exchange for projects taking place elsewhere that reduce emissions or remove carbon. In a compliance regime, an offset has no effect on total emissions in the best-case scenario, and will result in more emissions than would have occurred otherwise if the project is ineffective in any way (e.g. due to failures of additionality, permanence, etc.).

carbon sink

A reservoir, natural or engineered, that has the capacity to store more carbon than it releases over a certain period of time.

carbon uptake

The flux of carbon from the atmosphere to other terrestrial subsystems.

catalytic hydrogenation

The addition of hydrogen over a reactive pi-bond (double or triple bond) in hydrocarbons. Typically performed over a transition metal catalyst to improve kinetics. 

cement hydration

A chemical reaction in which the major compounds in cement form chemical bonds with water molecules and become hydrates or hydration products.

chemical species

Describes a group of atoms or molecules which are identical to one another. For example, a cylinder of pure carbon dioxide only contains molecules of the same species. 


Both chemical and physical; relating to both the chemistry and the physics of a substance or organism.


Settling tank used to continuously remove solids from a liquid.The collected solids are either discharged from the bottom of the tank (if they are concentrated and denser than the liquid) or removed from the top (if the particles float on the surface). 

climate tipping points

abrupt and irreversible climate events, such as ice sheet loss and ecosystem collapse.


A solid material produced in the manufacture of Portland cement as an intermediary product. It is the primary contributor to carbon dioxide emissions in concrete production.

Coastal Wetlands Planning, Protection and Restoration Act (CWPPRA)

United States federal legislation  passed by Congress in 1990 to fund wetland enhancement. 

Coastwide Reference Monitoring System (CRMS)

A system designed to monitor the effectiveness of restoration actions at multiple spatial scales – from individual projects to the influence of projects on the entire coastal landscape. 


In life cycle analysis (LCA), a co-product is sometimes produced alongside the primary product of investigation. Co-product allocation is performed to distribute emission burden across each co-product based upon the scope of the LCA. (See also: allocation method)

carbon mineralization (carbon dioxide mineralization, CO2 mineralization, mineral carbonation or enhanced weathering)

A process in which minerals in rocks react with carbon dioxide, resulting in the formation of new carbonate minerals and permanent storage of carbon dioxide.

coastal blue carbon

The carbon captured by living coastal and marine organisms and stored in coastal ecosystems ((such as mangroves, tidal marshes, seagrass meadows, and other coastal habitat) that facilitate the long-term confinement of carbon in plant materials or sediment. Also refers to carbon dioxide removal techniques that utilize such ecosystems to increase carbon-removing biomass and, in particular, soil carbon. (NOAA, 2020)

compliance carbon market

Compliance carbon markets are marketplaces through which regulated entities obtain and surrender emissions permits (allowances) or offsets in order to meet predetermined regulatory targets.

concentrated solar power (CSP)

Concentrated solar power (also known as concentrating solar power or  concentrated solar thermal) systems generate solar power by using mirrors or lenses to concentrate a large area of sunlight onto a receiver.

concentrated solar power on demand

A system is designed to absorb concentrated solar radiation in a molten eutectic salt.

converted lands

Terrestrial landscapes or freshwater systems already impacted by human activity (e.g. human settlements, agricultural lands, roads, and dams). (Baruch-Mordo et al (2019))


A catalytic process whereby large, complex organic molecules such as kerogens or long-chain hydrocarbons are broken down into simpler molecules such as light hydrocarbons through the addition of hydrogen at high temperature and pressure.


A life cycle assessment boundary describing those emissions generated as a result of upstream extraction and transport of raw materials through direct processing. This does not include contributions from downstream transport, consumption and/or end-of-life. (See also: life cycle analysis, cradle-to-grave, gate-to-gate)


A life cycle assessment boundary describing all emissions and impacts that result over the entire system or product life cycle. This includes upstream extraction and transport of raw materials, direct processing, downstream transport, consumption, and/or end-of-life. (See also: life cycle analysis, cradle-to-gate, gate-to-gate)

cropland data layer (CDL)

A raster, geo-referenced, crop-specific land cover map for the continental United States, hosted on CropScape.

cross-laminated timber (CLT)

A wood panel product made from gluing together layers of solid-sawn lumber, i.e., lumber cut from a single log.

deep saline formations

Porous rock formations located from near the surface to several kilometers in depth, whose porosity is filled with brine.

degraded land

Land negatively impacted (e.g. by loss of biodiversity or the decrease of organic carbon in soils) by human activity and natural processes (e.g. fires, drought, land use changes, or peatland drainage).


A chemical reaction where oxygen atoms are removed from a molecule. This can also refer to the removal of molecular oxygen from a gas or liquid solvent stream. 

United States Department of Agriculture (USDA)

The United States federal executive department responsible for developing and executing federal laws related to farming, forestry, rural economic development, and food.

United States Department of Energy (DOE)

A cabinet-level department of the United States government concerned with the United States' policies regarding energy and safety in handling nuclear material. 

direct air capture (DAC)

A chemical process that removes carbon dioxide from ambient air. When paired with carbon storage strategies, sometimes referred to as direct air carbon capture and storage (DACCS).

direct emissions

Emissions that are directly controllable and produced from within the system boundary. 

discount rate (bank rate)

Rate of interest charged by banks on loans.


Using an input of electric current to drive an otherwise non-spontaneous redox reaction (the transfer of electrons between chemical species).

embodied emissions

Emissions that result from the production or use of any good, or the provision of any service. For example, the embodied emissions of steel used for a reactor will include emissions associated with the acquisition of raw materials, processing, manufacturing, transportation, and the energy used in steel production.

emissions mitigation

A human intervention to reduce or avoid greenhouse gas emissions. Some publications have used the broad term “mitigation” to refer exclusively to emissions mitigation (CITE), whereas others have used mitigation (or “climate change mitigation”) to include missions mitigation, CDR, and any other strategies for combating climate change. (IPCC).

energy crop

Crops that are cultivated primarily for the purpose of producing energy feedstocks. 

United States Energy Information Administration (EIA)

A principal agency of the U.S. Federal Statistical System responsible for collecting, analyzing, and disseminating energy information to promote sound policymaking, efficient markets, and public understanding of energy and its interaction with the economy and the environment.

enhanced oil recovery (EOR)

Injection of supercritical carbon dioxide into oil reservoirs for the purpose of increasing the amount of oil recovered beyond primary (conventional) extraction.

United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)

An independent executive agency of the United States federal government tasked with environmental protection matters. 


The principle of fairness in access to opportunities, power-sharing, and burden-sharing. Equity is crucial to determining how to deploy strategies to address climate change – including CDR – that minimize harm to marginalized people and frontline communities. From the World Resources Institute: “Climate change poses the greatest threat to those that are the least responsible – generally people that are already vulnerable to deep-rooted challenges such as poverty. Conversely, those who have contributed the most to climate change have much better capacity to protect themselves from its impacts. As the effects of climate change mount, so does the urgency of addressing this equity challenge.” (IPCC).


The process by which water is transferred from land to the atmosphere by evaporation from soil and other surfaces and by transpiration from plants. (USGS, 2020).

European Union (EU)

A political and economic union of 27 member states that are located primarily in Europe. 

ex-situ carbon mineralization

Carbon mineralization performed with alkaline feedstock that has been removed from its original location and state (i.e., the Earth). 


The measure of useful work that can be extracted from a system as it comes into equilibrium with its surroundings. 


A crack in the Earth’s crust.


Creation of a fault or a system of faults due to mechanical stresses in the Earth's crust. Faulting in geologic formations is observed at several spatial scales, from micrometric to pluri-kilometric. (See also: fault)


A raw material that can be converted to a good of higher value (i.e. fuel).

first-of-a-kind (FOAK)

A set of acronyms used in engineering economics where the first item or generation of items using a new technology or design can cost significantly more than later items or generations.


A geological term referring to undulation or waves in a stack of originally planar surfaces of the Earth, such as sedimentary strata.

fold belts

A series of mountainous foothills made of a series of folds and adjacent to an orogenic belt (or mountain range). (See also: fold, folding)


Creation of one or several folds due to mechanical stresses in the Earth's crust. Like faulthing, folding in geologic formations is observed at a variety of spatial scales.


the rate of movement of greenhouse gases between reservoirs – for example, capturing CO2 through the chemical reactions of photosynthesis, resulting in carbon storage within a plant’s biomass.

frontline communities

some climate justice advocates have described these as communities that experience the “first and worst” consequences of climate change. These are often communities of color and those with low income levels that have insufficient infrastructure (such as well-maintained roads and up-to-date flood protection), and which will be increasingly impacted as our climate deteriorates. These may include Native communities whose resources have been exploited, or communities of laborers whose daily work or living environments are polluted or toxic.


The conversion of any carbon-based feedstock into synthesis gas or syngas (such as carbon monoxide and hydrogen gas) through reaction with a controlled amount of oxygen, typically at high temperature and pressure.


A life cycle assessment boundary describing only those emissions and impacts generated as a result of direct processing and excluding contributions from the upstream extraction and transport of raw materials as well as downstream transport, consumption, and/or end-of-life. (See also: life cycle analysis, cradle-to-gate, cradle-to-grave)


This term refers to the concept of deliberately manipulating the climate system in order to reduce the impacts of climate change. It is usually used in reference to solar radiation management (SRM), a controversial strategy that involves the injection of  material into the atmosphere that directly affects radiative forcing to reduce warming, but does not change concentrations of greenhouse gases. CDR has been inaccurately conflated with geoengineering in some literature.

geologic formation 

A body of rock having a consistent set of physical characteristics that distinguish it from adjacent bodies of rock. This body of rock must be distinctive enough to be identifiable, and thick and extensive enough to be plotted on geological maps.

geological sequestration (or storage) of carbon dioxide

Injection of carbon dioxide into porous geologic formations deeper than 800 meters (and preferably 1000 meters) for long-time storage (>1000 years). The carbon dioxide is kept at depth by various trapping mechanisms: mechanical trapping (impermeable caprock over the reservoir), residual gas trapping (capillary forces), solubility trapping (dissolution in brines or hydrocarbons), and mineralization (formation of carbonates). It is the last step of engineered carbon dioxide removal approaches that capture carbon from flue gas (bioenergy with carbon capture and storage) or from the air (direct air capture and storage).

Gigatonne of carbon dioxide

(GtCO2) – refers to a billion metric tonnes (metric tons) of CO2, which is equivalent to 1015 g. 1 GtCO2 is equivalent to 0.273 gigatonnes of carbon (GtC). This unit of measurement is used most frequently when discussing the scale of CDR required to prevent the worst impacts of climate change and keep warming below 1.5° C (i.e., gigatonne-scale CDR).

United States Geological Survey (USGS)

The nation's largest water, earth, and biological science and civilian mapping agency. It collects, monitors, analyzes, and provides scientific understanding of natural resource conditions, issues, and problems.

grain size

The diameter of individual grains of sediment. Grain size can vary within a sample of sediment, and can be expressed as d(0.8), or the diameter which is larger than 80 percent of the grains in a sample. 

greenhouse gas (GHG)

Those gaseous constituents of the atmosphere, both natural and anthropogenic (human-caused), that absorb and emit radiation at specific wavelengths within the spectrum of terrestrial radiation emitted by the Earth’s surface, by the atmosphere itself, and by clouds. This property causes the greenhouse effect, whereby heat is trapped in Earth’s atmosphere. Water vapor (H2O), carbon dioxide (CO2), nitrous oxide (N2O), methane (CH4) and ozone (O3) are the primary GHGs in the Earth’s atmosphere. There are also a number of entirely human-made GHGs in the atmosphere, such as the halocarbons and other chlorine- and bromine-containing substances, managed under the Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer (Montreal Protocol). Besides CO2, N2O and CH4, the Kyoto Protocol deals with the GHGs sulphur hexafluoride (SF6), hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs) and perfluorocarbons (PFCs).

geographical information system

A computer system for capturing, storing, checking, and displaying geographic data related to positions on the Earth's surface.

global timber model (GTM)

An economic model capable of examining global forestry land-use, management, and trade responses to policies.

global warming potential (GWP)

The heat absorbed by any greenhouse gas in the atmosphere, as a multiple of the heat that would be absorbed by the same mass of carbon dioxide.

Gulf Coast Carbon Center (GCCC)

A research center associated with the University of Texas that studies geological sequestration of carbon dioxide.

hard-to-avoid emissions

Emissions which are either physically extremely difficult to eliminate within a certain timeframe (e.g., because of dependence on a particular infrastructure with a long lead time for carbon-free substitution, or because avoidance would require a technology that relies on a scarce resource) or which would be unacceptable to avoid from a social justice perspective (e.g., if mitigation would deprive people of the means to satisfy their basic needs, like food security).

higher heating value (HHV)

A measure of the total energy released upon combustion of a material plus that which is released through the heat of condensation of any combustion byproducts. Also known as gross energy, upper heating value, gross calorific value, or higher calorific value.

highly-deformed sedimentary basin

Sedimentary rock layers deformed by numerous faults and folds.

hydrocarbon field

Porous rock (reservoir rock) containing oil and/or natural gas that can be commercially recovered, with at least one common reservoir for the entire area.

hydrologic cycle (or water cycle)

The continuous circulation of water in the Earth-atmosphere system.


Branch of science that studies the movement, distribution, and management of water in the atmosphere, on the surface, and in the subsurface of the Earth and other planets. This includes the water cycle, water resources, and watersheds.

igneous rocks

Any rock that has resulted from the solidification of a molten or partly molten material (i.e. magma).(Blatt et al., 2006)

improved forest management (IFM)

An agriculture, forestry and land use project category in the Verified Carbon Standard (VCS), improved forest management (IFM) refers to land management practices designed to increase the quantity of carbon stored in forests relative to baseline conditions (e.g., by modifying harvest schedules).

in-situ carbon mineralization

Carbon mineralization performed with feedstock that remains in its original place (i.e., the Earth). Typically, aqueous carbon dioxide is circulated into a deep geologic formation, where it mineralizes to form solid carbonate minerals.

indirect emissions

Emissions that occur as a result of the system activity, but do not occur within the system boundary.


Physical means by which concentrated carbon dioxide (usually supercritical CO2) is transported deep into the Earth's subsurface for the purpose of storage or EOR.

inside battery limits (ISBL)

Includes all equipment and associated components and instrumentation of a given operation. The battery limit outlines the limit of responsibility for the plant operators. (See also: outside battery limits).

integrated assessment model (IAM)

An approach that integrates social, economic, and physical models for the purpose of understanding how different decisions drive emissions and emission mitigation

Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC)

An intergovernmental body of the United Nations that is dedicated to providing the world with objective scientific information relevant to understanding the scientific basis of the risk of human-induced climate change, its natural, political, and economic impacts and risks, and possible response options.

International Energy Agency Greenhouse Gas Research and Development Programme (IEAGHG)

An international research body established in 1991, evaluating technologies to reduce greenhouse gases from the use of fossil fuels, with a focus on carbon capture and storage.

International Standards Organization (ISO)

An international standard-setting body composed of representatives from various national standards organizations.

kilowatt-hour (kWh)

A standardized measurement of energy over time.

knowledge base uncertainty

A knowledge base is the underlying data or assumptions that make up the knowledge in a certain analysis or, more broadly, a given field of study. Knowledge base uncertainty refers to the uncertainty that is built into these assumptions, on account of lack of knowledge, bias data, or similar causes.

Kyoto Protocol

A 1997 agreement that operationalizes the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) committing industrialized countries and economies in transition to limit and reduce greenhouse gas emissions in accordance with agreed-upon individual targets. (UNFCCC).

Large-scale CDR

Carbon dioxide removal on the order of or approaching gigatonnes of CO2 removed per year.

latent heat of vaporization

Energy released (upon condensation) or absorbed (upon evaporation) by a body or a thermodynamic system.

leakage (physical)

Refers to initially-stored CO2 (or other GHG) that has left its storage state and returned to the atmosphere. Examples may include combustion of a fuel made from CO2, burning of biomass, or migration of CO2 from underground storage.

leakage (socioeconomic)

occurs when CDR activities displace emissions to other locations, times, or forms. For example, leakage occurs in forest carbon offset credit programs when a reduction in timber harvesting at a project site, incentivized due to its potential for emissions reductions and/or CDR, causes timber harvesting to increase somewhere else to meet demand. Similarly, if an engineered CDR approach coupled to CO2 utilization results in higher costs, alternatives that emit more CO2 may become economically favorable by comparison.

learning rate

The rate at which a technology becomes more efficient in use of resources (both physical and monetary) as the number of produced units, or installed capacity increases. 

life cycle analysis (LCA)

An analysis of the balance of positive and negative emissions associated with a certain process, which includes all of the flows of CO2 and other greenhouse gases, along with impacts to other environmental or social impacts of concern. This analysis also includes greenhouse gas emissions that result from the materials used to construct a given process (commonly referred to as embodied emissions), as well as from the energy resource used to meet the energy demands of the process.


A complex organic polymer found in the cell walls of many plants, making them rigid and woody.

lignocellulose/lignocellulosic crops

Refers to plant dry matter (biomass) such as wood.  It is the most abundantly available raw material on Earth for the production of biofuels, mainly bioethanol.

low-carbon fuel standard (LCFS)

A rule enacted to reduce carbon intensity in transportation fuels as compared to conventional petroleum fuels, such as gasoline and diesel. 

low energy demand scenario (LED)

Refers to scenarios that limit global warming to 1.5° C, describing major transformations in energy supply and ever-rising energy demand.

lower heating/calorific value (LCV)

A calculation assuming that the water component of a combustion process is in vapor state at the end of combustion.

mafic rock

Igneous rock that contains relatively high amounts of magnesium and iron and is silica-poor (approximately 45 – 52 percent SiO2) – i.e., basalts and gabbros.


A unit of energy equal to 1 million joules.


A unit for measuring power that is equivalent to one million watts. One megawatt is equivalent to the energy produced by 10 automobile engines.

merchant CO2

carbon dioxide that is captured for the purpose of offsite distribution to other industries. 

metamorphic rock

Rock transformed by metamorphism (i.e. mineralogic or textural change that occurs in a rock in the solid state as a response to changes in environmental variables, especially temperature and pressure). (Blatt et al., 2006).


Production of methane by archaea (microbial organisms distinct from eukaryotes and bacteria) known as methanogens.

mine tailings

Unwanted rock material that has been processed and rejected by a mining operation. Tailings are typically stored at a mine in ponds or piles, where they may remain for years or decades.

mineral dissolution

The rearrangement or destruction of a mineral's molecular lattice structure upon prolonged contact with a solvent, allowing ions to leave the lattice structure and dissolve into solution.


The practice of cultivating only one agricultural crop or livestock at a time in a given area.

Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer (Montreal Protocol)

A 1987 international treaty that regulates the production and consumption of nearly 100 man-made chemicals referred to as ozone-depleting substances. (UNEP).

moral hazard

An ethical concern whereby skeptics of potential CDR systems worry that emission reduction will be reduced or delayed on the promise of future CDR deployment. Experts agree that most temperature stabilization scenarios require ambitious efforts both on greenhouse gas mitigation and CDR, and that the potential for large-scale deployment of CDR is not an acceptable basis to justify slowing down the pace of mitigation.

National Academies of Science, Engineering and Technology (NASEM)

A United States-based non-governmental organization that provides independent, objective advice to inform policy with evidence, spark progress and innovation, and confront challenging issues for the benefit of society.

Negative emissions

occurs when a sink  – created or enhanced by human activity – removes greenhouse gases from the atmosphere (in this primer, only CO2 is considered).

negative emissions technologies (NETs)

This term is not used in the primer, but has been used as an alternate term for CDR approaches in other publications.

net-carbon balance

The net carbon emissions or reductions resulting from the sum of carbon uptake and emissions.

net-zero emissions

achieved when more greenhouse gases are removed from the atmosphere than are emitted into it.

non-highly-deformed sedimentary basins

An ideally non-deformed sedimentary basin is made of a series of overlapping horizontal layers of sedimentary rocks. In a non-highly-deformed basin, these sedimentary layers underwent slight deformation by faulting and folding.

ocean alkalinity enhancement

Processes that increase the amount of alkalinity (or charge balance of ions) in the ocean, resulting in a carbon dioxide flux from the air to the ocean and an increase in dissolved inorganic carbon concentration.

ocean carbon

Carbon that is in ocean waters, namely dissolved carbon dioxide, bicarbonate and carbonate ions, dissolved or particulate organic carbon, and particulate inorganic carbon.

ocean fertilization 

Promoting the growth of photosynthetic organisms (i.e. macroalgae) for increased carbon uptake  by enhancing ocean conditions for uptake with iron, nitrates or phosphates.

offsets for emissions trading systems

A certifiable reduction, removal, or avoidance of greenhouse gases in one process that can be sold or traded for the purpose of lowering the overall greenhouse gas footprint of another process. 


A magnesium iron silicate that occurs naturally in basalt, peridotite, and other rocks. It has two endmember compositions, an iron silicate called fayalite and a magnesium silicate forsterite.

outside battery limits (OSBL)

Includes all equipment and associated components and instrumentation of a given operation. The battery limit outlines the limit of responsibility for the plant operators. (See also: inside battery limits)

operating cost

The total cost of operation, including payroll, maintenance, overhead, and other day-to-day costs associated with maintaining a facility or business, including energy costs and chemicals. These are the costs repeatedly incurred by a facility over its lifetime.


Ultramafic rock that originates from the upper mantle of the Earth’s crust, consisting largely of serpentine.

organic carbon

A measure of the carbon content in soils derived from plant and animal matter. Organic carbon is most abundant at the surface of soils and sediments where detritus is deposited, most of which is derived from aerobic photosynthesis.


climate stabilization scenarios in which emissions trajectories exceed their concentration or temperature targets (e.g. 1.5º C or 2º C) early in the century, but use substantial amounts of CDR later to reduce atmospheric CO2 levels and achieve the original targets. See Chapter 1 for a discussion of moral hazards and other challenges associated with these scenarios.

oxy-fired kiln or calcination unit

A kiln or calcination unit that is fired with high purity of oxygen instead of air, where oxygen makes up roughly 21 percent of the air stream. 

Paris Agreement

A 2016 agreement formed by Parties to the UNFCCC to combat climate change and to accelerate and intensify the actions and investments needed for a sustainable low carbon future. (UNFCCC)

parts per million (ppm)

The number of units of mass of a contaminant per million units of total mass. As an example, the concentration of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere is approximately 410 ppm.


A process by which a material becomes more passive or is less prone to corrosion or reaction. For mineral carbonation purposes, this refers to the formation of a silica-rich outer layer as the carbonation reaction progresses. This layer is deficient in alkali cations and is therefore not reactive for the carbonation process and presents a barrier to diffusion. This layer is typically referred to as a "passivation layer."


A type of wetland that occurs in almost every country on Earth, currently covering 3 percent of the global land surface. The term ‘peatland’ refers to peat soil and the wetland habitat growing on its surface. In these areas, year-round waterlogged conditions slow the process of plant decomposition to such an extent that dead plants accumulate to form peat. (IUCN, 2020)

perfluorocarbons (PFCs)

Human-made chemicals that consist entirely of carbon and fluorine. Perfluorocarbons are powerful greenhouse gases. 


A type of ultramafic rock that contains large amounts of olivine. (See also: olivine)

Permanence (or Durability)

The duration for which CO2 can be stored in a stable and safe manner. Storage dDuration can differ significantly between  reservoirs. For example, storage concentrated CO2 stored in geologic formations deep underground is effectively permanent for thousands of years, whereas forest carbon stocks can release carbon back into the atmosphere due to wildfire or tree harvesting.


The ability of a membrane to allow a certain gas to pass through it.


The observable physical properties of an organism; these include the organism's appearance, development, and behavior. An organism's phenotype is determined by its genotype, which is the set of genes the organism carries, as well as by environmental influences upon these genes. (Nature, 2020)

photovoltaics (PV)

Refers to the conversion of light into electricity using semiconducting materials that exhibit the photovoltaic effect, a phenomenon studied in physics, photochemistry, and electrochemistry.

platinum group elements (PGEs)

Six noble, precious metallic elements clustered together in the periodic table. These elements are all transition metals in the d-block (groups 8, 9, and 10, periods 5 and 6). The six platinum-group metals are ruthenium, rhodium, palladium, osmium, iridium, and platinum.

pneumatic controller

A mechanical device that measures temperature or pressure, determines any deviation in temperature or pressure from a given setpoint, and transmits an air signal to a final control element to correct for the deviation.

point source

A localized, stationary and concentrated source of pollution, such as a smokestack.

polygeneration plant

A facility that produces multiple outputs or products from a single source, e.g., a coal plant that yields electricity, heat, syngas, and chemicals.

pore space

A characteristic of the porosity of a material, described as the total amount of empty or void space between material grains or particles.

Positive emissions

Occurs when a  particular source – created or enhanced by human activity – adds greenhouse gases to the atmosphere.

(Potential) CDR system

A system with the capacity to generate net-negative emissions, but which will not necessarily do so under all conditions. A comprehensive LCA and other analyses are required to conclusively demonstrate that a “potential” CDR System is, indeed, a CDR System. For example, in the absence of an life cycle analysis (LCA), a CDR system that barely achieves net negative emissions could look the same as one that achieves far greater net climate benefits per tonne of CO2 removed from the atmosphere.

potential of hydrogen

A scale used to specify the acidity or basicity of an aqueous solution. Acidic solutions (solutions with higher concentrations of H+ ions) are measured to have lower pH values than basic or alkaline solutions.

practical salinity units

The number of parts per thousand of sodium chloride (salt) in a given solution (i.e. 1 PSU = 1 gram per kilogram). This unit is based on the properties of sea water conductivity.


Thermal decomposition of a material in the absence of oxygen.

radiative forcing/radiative effects

Refers to the difference between solar irradiance (sunlight) absorbed by the Earth and the energy radiated back to space. 


Lands on which the indigenous vegetation is predominantly grasses, grass-like plants, forbs, and possibly shrubs or dispersed trees. Existing plant communities can include both native and introduced plants. (USDA)


The natural or managed restocking of degraded lands that were or naturally would reach a climax community as a forest ecosystem. 

regional seal

Relatively impermeable rock (e.g. shale, anhydrite, or salt), that forms a barrier or cap above a reservoir rock (e.g. sandstone or limestone) such that fluids cannot migrate beyond the reservoir.

representative concentration pathway (RCP)

A greenhouse gas concentration (not emissions) trajectory adopted by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change.

research, development, and demonstration (RD&D)

The set of innovative activities undertaken by corporations or governments in developing new services or products and improving existing ones. Also referred to as research and development (R&D, R+D), and known in Europe as research and technological development (RTD).

residence time

The average length of time that a substance will remain in a given location, condition, or control volume. For example, in reactor design, the residence time is the average time that a species will spend inside the physical reaction vessel. 


Refers to wherever a greenhouse gas is stored. Examples include geological formations, alkaline-containing minerals, forest biomass, and soils.

Safe Drinking Water Act (SDWA)

The principal federal law in the United States intended to ensure safe drinking water for the public.

second law of thermodynamics

Law of physics which states that the total entropy (disorder) of an isolated system can never decrease over time, and is constant if and only if all processes are reversible. (Wilcox, 2012)

sedimentary formation

Geologic formation made of a succession of layers of sedimentary rocks. Sedimentary formations are mapped by geological age.

sedimentary rock

Any rock that has resulted from the accumulation, induration (hardening), and/or cementation of sediments of any grain size (e.g. sandstones, mud rocks, and carbonate rocks).

sequestration (carbon dioxide sequestration)

See geological storage of carbon dioxide.


A mineral subgroup formed when peridotite, dunite, and/or other ultramafic rocks undergo hydrothermal metamorphism. The most common serpentine minerals are magnesium-dominant and comprise three species: lizardite, antigorite, and chrysotile. 


A geospatial vector data format or file type for geographic information system (GIS) software.

short-lived climate pollutant (SLCP)

Refers to a greenhouse gas that has a relatively short atmospheric lifetime, including methane and hydrofluorocarbons.


Refers to a type of mineral which makes up about 90 percent of the Earth's crust. Silicates contain varying amounts of silica tetrahedra, where one silicon atom is surrounded by four oxygen atoms. The tetrahedra can be isolated or combined in chains, double chains, sheets, or frameworks, which defines the different types of silicates.


Any process, activity or mechanism which removes a greenhouse gas, a precursor of a greenhouse gas, or an aerosol from the atmosphere.


The equipment in which the slaking reaction occurs. The slaking reaction produces calcium hydroxide by mixing solid lime (i.e., calcium oxide) and water (or steam). 


A mixture of water and fine particles. 

social justice

just or fair relations within society that seek to address the inequitable distribution of wealth, access to resources, opportunity, and support and remove discriminatory systems and structures that block marginalized groups from accessing these benefits on the basis of race, gender, economic status, or any other factor.

soil amendment

Any material added to a soil to improve its physical properties, such as water retention, permeability, water infiltration, drainage, aeration, and structure.

soil carbon dynamics

Changes in the fluxes, forms, and stocks of carbon within soil pools as a result of natural and anthropogenic inputs. 

soil carbon stock

Carbon trapped within soil.

soil carbon storage (or sequestration)

The accrual of carbon within soils (organic and inorganic forms), either naturally or through improved management.

soil organic carbon (SOC)

A measurable component of soil organic matter. Organic matter makes up 2 – 10 percent of most soil's mass and has an important role in the physical, chemical, and biological function of agricultural soils.

soil respiration

The production of carbon dioxide from the respiration of organisms within the soil.

solar radiation management (SRM)

Strategies that aim to reflect the sun’s rays back into space, characterized as geoengineering.


A substance that dissolves a solute. For example, potassium hydroxide in water is a solvent that dissolves carbon dioxide, a solute. (See also: absorption)


A catch-all term for a solid that is used to absorb (absorbent) or adsorb (adsorbent) a given liquid or gas. For example, solid sorbents for direct air carbon capture are typically amine grafted solids which adsorb carbon dioxide on their surfaces. 

sorption isotherm

Represents the amount of material adsorbed as a function of the relative pressure at a constant temperature. There are six International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry classifications for adsorption isotherms that can indicate certain pore sizes and adsorption potential in the adsorbent material. These isotherms are typically shown graphically. (Sing et al., 1985)


Any process, activity, or mechanism which creates a greenhouse gas, a precursor of a greenhouse gas, or an aerosol.


The method of using a diffuser to bubble gas into a liquid solution. This allows for a higher surface area of exposed gas that, dependent on the gas solubility, can increase dissolution into the liquid. 

steady state

An unvarying condition in a physical process.

steam methane reformation (SMR)

A method for producing syngas (hydrogen and carbon monoxide) by reacting hydrocarbons with water. 


A carbon reservoir that exchanges carbon with the atmosphere over relatively fast timescales (e.g. less than 100 years), including the terrestrial biosphere and shallow oceans. By comparison, other reservoirs, such as geologic formations and the deep ocean, exchange carbon over much slower timescales (e.g. 1,000 years).

Storage (or Sequestration)

Two terms that can be used interchangeably to describe the addition of CO2 removed from the atmosphere to a reservoir, which serves as its ultimate destination. For example, some CDR strategies store carbon in biological systems, such as forests or soil ecosystems, whereas others inject CO2 underground or chemically transform CO2 into stable, mineral forms.

storage assessment unit (SAU)

Mappable volume of rock that consists of a porous storage formation (reservoir rock) and an overlying regional seal formation with low permeability. (USGS)


The leaves and stalks of field crops, such as corn (maize), sorghum, or soybeans, commonly left in a field after harvesting the crop.

Subsidiary Body for Scientific and Technological Advice (SBSTA)

A subsidiary body of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change Conference of the Parties.


The state of being beyond supercritical temperature and pressure, i.e. above the thermodynamic critical point. 

surface ocean anoxia

The depletion of oxygen in the ocean.

surficial carbon mineralization

Carbon mineralization performed on the surface of a feedstock with a high reactive surface area. Carbon dioxide-bearing fluid or gas is reacted with mine tailings, alkaline industrial wastes, or sedimentary formations rich in reactive rock fragments.

system boundaries

The divide between what is included in and what is excluded from a system of study.

techno-economic analysis (TEA)

A methodology framework to analyze the technical and economic performance of a process, product or service.

technology readiness level (TRL)

A method developed by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) used to determine the level of readiness for deployment of a technology, ranging in scale from 0 – 9.

thermodynamic minimum work of separation

The absolute thermodynamic minimum work or energy that must be provided to a system for a reversible, constant-temperature and constant-pressure separation to occur. The minimum work for a separation system is directly correlated to the inlet and outlet purities of carbon dioxide in addition to the percent capture. (Wilcox, 2012; Wilcox et al., 2017).


Measure of the level of particles (e.g. sediment, plankton, or organic by-products), in a body of water. (OSNOAA)

ultramafic rock

Any rock that is composed of ≥90 percent ferromagnesian minerals. They typically have high MgO content (>18 percent), and are ideal feedstock for carbon mineralization. Examples include peridotite, kimberlite, and dunite.

United Nations (UN)

An  intergovernmental organization that aims to maintain international peace and security, develop friendly relations among nations, achieve international cooperation, and be a center for harmonizing the actions of nations.

United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP)

A program responsible for coordinating the United Nations’ environmental activities and assisting developing countries in having environmentally sound policies and practices.

voluntary carbon market

Avoided or removed carbon dioxide emissions (quantified as offset credits) that are exchanged through marketplaces that are not created or utilized for policy compliance. Individuals and companies procure carbon credits through these markets on an entirely voluntary basis.

water-gas shift reaction

Describes the reaction of carbon monoxide and water vapor to form carbon dioxide and hydrogen.

weighted average cost of capital

The projected return rate for investors while financing a company or project.


Areas where water covers the soil or is present either at or near the surface of the soil either all year or for varying periods of time during the year, including during the growing season. (EPA)


Calcium silicate mineral (CaSiO3) that is a product of a reaction commonly at the boundary of granitic intrusions and limestone.

working fluid

Gas or liquid that primarily transfers force, motion, heat, or mechanical energy.

World Business Council for Sustainable Development (WBCSD)

A CEO-led organization of over 200 international companies that support sustainable business practices.

World Resources Institute (WRI)

A global research non-profit organization established in 1982 with funding from the MacArthur Foundation under the leadership of James Gustave Speth. WRI's activities are focused on seven areas: food, forests, water, energy, cities, climate, and ocean.